Vitamin K2 to Prevent & Heal Cavities in Teeth and Build Strong Bones — for Vegans & Vegetarians

This is page 8 (References) of an 8-page Article. Please begin at Page 1 here, to fully understand how vitamin K2 gives you strong bones & teeth.

A. References: Research Studies

1. Adams J & Pepping J. Vitamin K in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis and Arterial Calcification. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005 Aug 1;62(15):1574-81.

2. Bertassoni LE, Habelitz S, et al. Mechanical Recovery of Dentin Following Remineralization In Vitro – an Indentation Study. J Biomech. 2011 January 4; 44(1):176-181.

3. Binkley NC, Krueger DC, Kawahara TN, et al. A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin gamma-carboxylation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76(5):1055-60.

4. Bolland MJ, Grey A, Avenell A, et al. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular events: reanalysis of the Women’s Health Initiative limited access dataset and meta-analysis. BMJ 2011; 342:d2040.

5. Braam LA, Knapen MH, Geusens P, et al. Vitamin K1 supplementation retards bone loss in postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years of age. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003 Jul; 73(1):21-6.

6. Bügel, S. Vitamin K and bone health. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003; 62:839-843. Excellent article, well worth a read.

7. Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jun 26; 166(12):1256-61.

8. Elder SJ, Haytowitz DB, Howe J, et al. Vitamin K Contents of Meat, Dairy, and Fast Food in the U.S. Diet. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54:463-67.

9. Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, Rockett H, Booth SL, Colditz GA. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan; 69(1):74-9.

10. Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study. J. Nutr 2004 Nov; 134:3100-3105.

11. Hojo K, Watanabe R, Mori T, Taketomo N. Quantitative measurement of tetrahydromenaquinone-9 in cheese fermented by propionibacteria. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Sep; 90(9):4078-83.

12. Kaneki M, et al. Japanese fermented soybean food as the major determinant of the large geographic difference in circulating levels of vitamin K2: possible implications for hip-fracture risk. Nutrition 2001; 17(4):315-21.

13. Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18(7):963-72.

14. Li J, Lin JC, et al. Novel Role of Vitamin K in Preventing Oxidative Injury to Developing Oligodendrocytes and Neurons. J Neurosci. 2003; 32(13):5816-5826.

15. Lipsky, JJ. Nutritional sources of vitamin K. Mayo Clin Proc. 1994; 69:462-466.

16. McKeown NM, Jacques PF, et al. Dietary and nondietary determinants of vitamin K biochemical measures in men and women. J Nutr. 2002; 132(6):1329-1334.

17. Morishita T, Natsuko T, Makino T, Kudo S. Production of Menaquinones by Lactic Acid Bacteria. J Dairy Sci. 1999; 82:1897-1903. The five strains that produced K2 were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris YIT 2007, YIT 2011, and YIT 2012, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis YIT 2027, and Leuconostoc lactis YIT 3001. Of these, the only two that acidified the reconstituted NDM were YIT 2011 and YIT 2012.

18. Nagai, T. Bacteriophages of Bacillus subtilis (natto) and Their Contamination in Natto Factories. Bacteriophages, Dr. Ipek Kurtboke (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0272-4.

19. Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in food. Effect of food matrix on circulating vitamin K concentrations. Haemostasis 2000 Nov-Dec; 30(6):298-307.

20. Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJF, Hamulyák K, et al. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood 2007; 109:3279-83.

21. Shewry PR, Halford NG, et al. The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2002 Feb 28; 357(1418):133–142.

B. References: Web Articles

22. Archer, Val, Raw Food Recipes. Gives you links to all recipes mentioned in this article, and to Ann Wigmore’s Chart for Raw & Living Foods, and Avoid Altogether Foods.

23. Archer, Val, Stop Toothache and Root Canals! How to Cure Tooth Ache & Bleeding Gums. Gives details of how I healed my own teeth from a lifetime of cavities & pain.

24. Bass, Dr. Stanley S., Vegan Diet Dangers. Dr. Bass’s 1976 interview of natural hygiene doctor Dr. Christopher Gian-Cursio re. Dr. Cursio’s multi-generational work with the vegetarian Penepent family in upstate New York in the 1930’s (extracted from the booklet “With Three Generations of Vegetarian Hygienists”). This is the only multi-generational study of vegans I’ve found to date. I emailed numerous vegan leaders, families & organizations asking if they know of any other.

25. Brown, Dr. Susan E., PhD, Vitamin K Benefits for Heart And Bone Health. Cites research showing the role vitamin K2 as MK-7 plays in keeping calcium in the bones and out of the arteries.

26. Davis, William, MD, Protecting Bone and Arterial Health with Vitamin K2. Article in Life Extension Magazine, March 2008. Cites 21 research studies.

27. Faloon, William, Protection Against Arterial Calcification, Bone Loss, Cancer, and Aging! Article in Life Extension Magazine, January 2009. Cites 69 studies. A must-read if you don’t read Dr. Kate’s book.

28. International Osteoporosis Foundation, Global Facts & Statistics.

29. Kruse, Jack, MD, Osteoporosis 2: The Vitamin K2 Story.

30. Masterjohn, Chris, PhD, On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved. Article in Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts, Spring 2007. One of the most brilliant science papers of our century (in my view). Dr. Masterjohn (website: shows how vitamin K1 in rapidly growing, green grass is the precursor to Activator X (discovered by Dr. Weston Price in the 1930’s) while Activator X itself is vitamin K2. This paper triggered Dr. Kate to write the first book on K2, summarizing all K2 research to date.

31. Mercola, Joseph, DO, What You Need to Know About Vitamin K2, D and Calcium. Dr. Mercola’s interview with Dr. Kate Rheaume-Bleue, author of Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox (#ad).

32. Mercola, Joseph, DO, Why Your Gut Flora Powerfully Dictates Whether You’re Healthy or Sick.

33. Mercola, Joseph, DO, Why Cholesterol is Essential for Optimal Health, and the Six Most Important Risk Factors of Heart Disease. Dr. Mercola’s interview with Dr. Chris Masterjohn. Well worth a listen because Dr. Masterjohn is an expert on vitamin K2.

34.,, Wikipedia: Blombos_Cave.

35. Wikipedia: Natto.

36. Wikipedia: Phytochemical.

37. Wikipedia: Vitamin K.

38. Wikipedia: Vitamin K2.

C. References: Websites

39. – Dr. Susan Brown’s whole-body approach to bone health that reaches beyond the estrogen and calcium myths to truly support healthy bone growth and regeneration through nutrition and lifestyle. Osteoporosis is not inevitable, and it is never too late to support and rebuild bone naturally.

40. Vegetarian and naturopath Ulla Schmid’s info-rich website on healing teeth & gums naturally. More comprehensive than any book I’ve found, and it’s all free!

41. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Produces the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. At time of writing, it’s Release 28 (2015).

 * Vitamin K1 per one cup of Food.

 * Vitamin K2 (MK-4) per 100g of Food (all animal foods).

 * Wikipedia: Vitamin K2 claims that animal livers are a rich source of K2, but USDA do not mention liver in their MK-4 list. Elder et al.[8] say chicken liver has 14 mcg per 100g.

42. An International Community founded to explore and understand the emerging role of Natural Vitamin K2 in human health. Resource for both medical professionals and non-experts.

D. References: Books

43. Cousens, Gabriel, MD (2005). Spiritual Nutrition: Six Foundations for Spiritual Life and the Awakening of Kundalini (#ad). North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1556434995. See chapter 10: “Bioenergetic Assimilation.” Website:

44. Davis, Brenda, RD & Melina, Vesanto, MS, RD (2010). Becoming Raw: The Essential Guide to Raw Vegan Diets (#ad). Book Publishing Company, Summertown, TN. ISBN 9781570672385. Websites: and

45. Fuhrman, Joel, MD (2010). Eat To Live: The Amazing Nutrient Rich Program for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss (#ad) (Kindle edition with Video). Vook Inc. ISBN 9781936321292. Website:

46. Nagel, Ramiel (2010). Cure Tooth Decay: Heal and Prevent Cavities with Nutrition (#ad), 2nd Edit. Golden Child Publishing, Ashland, OR. ISBN 978-0982021309. I don’t agree with Nagel’s diet of flesh & dairy, but his research is good. Website:

47. Pollack, Gerald H. (2013). The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor (#ad). Ebner & Sons, Seattle, WA. ISBN 978-0962689543. Website:

48. Rhéaume-Bleue, Kate, B.Sc., ND (2013). Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox: How a Little-Known Vitamin Could Save Your Life (#ad). HarperCollins Canada. Kindle Edition. ISBN 978-1443427562. Website:

49. Schenck, Susan, Lac (2011). Beyond Broccoli: Creating A Biologically Balanced Diet When a Vegetarian Diet Doesn’t Work (#ad). Awakenings Publications, Concrete, WA. ISBN 978-0977679522.

50. Wigmore, Ann (1986). The Sprouting Book: How to Grow and Use Sprouts to Maximize Your Health and Vitality (#ad). Avery Publishing, Wayne, NJ. ISBN 978-0895292469.

51. Wigmore, Ann (1985). The Wheatgrass Book: How to Grow and Use Wheatgrass to Maximize Your Health and Vitality (#ad). Avery Publishing, Wayne, NJ. ISBN 978-0895292346.

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